Tuesday, July 28, 2020

2019s Top Writing Websites

2019s Top Writing Websites Mary Jessamyn West, American author of short stories and novels, once wrote: Writing is a solitary occupation. Family, friends, and society are the natural enemies of the writer. He must be alone, uninterrupted, and slightly savage if he is to sustain and complete an undertaking.While there is truth to the statement, being alone can also mean frustration when youre trying to learn how to survive in the writing and publishing industry. With so much information available on the Internet, its hard to know how to sift through it and find the most valuable advice given, considering how little time most of us have to read it.Thats why weve taken the work out of the search and have compiled a list of the top writing websites of 2019 based on the content they offer and the value of the advice given. Hopefully, this will help you in the struggle to access the resources and community you need, when you need it most.General writing adviceThese websites offer general writing advice for authors. Photo by Kaboompics .com from Pexels.PsychWriterAlmost anyone can put a story on paperâ€"but only the best writers know how to craft engaging characters who remain in the mind of readers long after the story is finished. And thats the exact skill PsychWriter helps you develop.Written and maintained by Tamar Sloan, a practicing psychologist and award-winning young adult author, PsychWriter explores how to use the principles of psychology to create deep, well-crafted characters who take on a life of their own. On the site, visitors can download a free e-book, Hook Your Readers, where they can learn how to give readers what they are really looking for, capture readers by sparking curiosity, engage readers with the power of emotion, and craft a compelling character that readers cant help but connect with.The site also contains informative blog posts written by Sloan surrounding certain topics in character building and psychology, such as this one focusing on Engaging Emotion and this on e about Capturing Curiosity: The Power of Conflict.Writers DigestThere are few sites as compact with resources and opportunities for writers as Writers Digest. The sites mission encompasses every aspect of a writers lifeâ€"from inspiring creativity to community connections to resources needed at every stage of the writing journey.The site offers everything from creative writing prompts, poetry prompts, and inspirational advice to practical advice, interviews from fellow writers, free workshops, competitions and lists for professional services. With so many free resources, a writer really has no excuse not to sharpen his or her craft and connect with like-minded creatives seeking to get better at what they do.Well-StoriedWhile Well-Storied has resources across multiple categories related to writing and publishing, one of its standout sections is The Writing Life, with articles aimed at helping authors work through everything from time management to creative burnout.Additional categor ies for writing include Characters, Plotting, Pre-Writing, and Story Elements, among others, to help writers gather the tools needed for the profession. There are also free courses, workbooks, a podcast, and a community page focused on connecting writers to the various social opportunities provided through the website.Marketing and publishing your workThese websites offer advice on how to market and publish your writing. Photo by rawpixel.com from Pexels.Create If WritingVoted one of Houstons Top 25 Social Media Power Influencers, author Kirsten Oliphants Create if Writing has one of the best taglines Ive ever seen on a writing website: Turn readers into raving fans…without being smarmy.With advice on everything from building an author platform, social media strategy for authors, and how to handle bad reviewsâ€"to finding time to write and dealing with a disastrous book launch, Oliphants blog is full of helpful tips. She also offers a free yearly content planner and strategy guide to help you focus your writing goals and get on track with your time and creative energy. In it, youll find guidance on everything from social media strategy, to investment plans, to editorial calendars and professional development planningâ€"all at absolutely no cost to you.The Creative PennWeve previously written in depth about author Joanna Penns amazing website, The Creative Penn, which is aimed at helping writers navigate the often-frustrating waters of publishing and marketing their work. However, no list of 2019s best websites for writers is complete without it.In addition to the extensive free resources available on the website, Penn also publishes a podcast for writers, with new episodes posted every Monday. It offers interviews with new and established authors, inspiration for writers needing an extra helping of it, and a plethora of information relating to the writing, publishing, book marketing, and entrepreneurial life.Independent Publishing MagazineIndependent Publish ing Magazine is another online magazine and website weve reviewed in more detail. It has been named as one of Writers Digest 101 Best Websites for Writers and Feedspots Top 100 Self-Publishing Blogs and Websites for Independent Authors. It also features an originally researched and synthesized Publishing Service Index, providing an easy-to-use list for authors looking to self-publish based on services offered and the market share of each independent publishing platform.Elsewhere on the site, Independent Publishing Magazine offers a trove of resources aimed at self-publishing, traditional publishing, marketing your work, and new authors looking for an open window into the industry.The Write PracticeAlthough most of the websites mentioned in this list are completely free resources, The Write Practice is one membership-based site that writers should definitely take advantage of if you have the extra funds for professional development. In fact, this could be the best $15-$25 monthly mem bership costs you spend if you want to become a better writer.Included in the premium ($25) monthly membership fee are publishing opportunities (The Write Practice partners with literary magazines to help you get published), deadlines and the accountability you need to turn your passion into finished stories, valuable feedback from a community of writing professionals, networking opportunities, premium coaching opportunities, discounts, and writing contests.You dont have to pay for the monthly membership to enjoy other opportunities the site offers, such as an informative blog and links to other resources available online. However, to get the most out of the site, a subscription is definitely worth its weight in the informative and collaborative gold youll receive from it.Creative games, courses, prompts, and worksheetsThese websites offer creative games, courses, prompts and worksheets for writers. Photo by Pixabay from Pexels.Language is a VirusWriters and writers block go togethe r like peanut butter and jelly. In fact, if youre a writer who has never experienced writers block, you should probably publish your secret and become a millionaire on that ability alone. Youll be in envious company if you do.Enter Language is a Virus, a website full of fun games and text manipulators to reset your mind while working on a project. Instead of going down the inevitable rabbit hole of social media when the words just wont come, try these games instead. Youll find that keeping your focus on words and their arrangement is a great creative exercise in finding your way back to your writing.For example, one game called Reverse Poem reverses whatever words you type to help you find an entirely new way to look at them. Another called Rewordifier randomly replaces words in your text, pulling words from author-based word lists, genre-based word lists, or the entire English dictionary.E.A. Deverells Creative Writing BlogSome websites created by and for writers are so full of ads and random syndicated feeds that its impossible to sift through the madness and get to the good stuff. This is not the case with E.A. Deverells Creative Writing Blog. In fact, I dare you to find somethingâ€"anythingâ€"on the website that isnt of use to your work as a writer and creative. Even the (very few) ads are targeted perfectly and are currently limited to offering links to Neil Gaimans writing course.Want 100 days of flash fiction prompts? How about a free, downloadable worksheet for people watching or a past/present/future/ideal mandala? Whether you inspiration in the form of creative writing or poetry prompts, downloadable worksheets, or a free novel outline, author Eva Deverell has you covered.Write or DieMandy Wallaces Write or Die blog starts by offering a free course containing publication strategy, writing prompts, submission tips, and cover-letter how-to information. However, the most fascinating part of the website is a deep dive into MBTIâ€"or Myers-Briggs Type Ind icatorâ€"for ones character building. In it, youll find character cheatsheets for each of the personality types (ISTP, ESFJ, INFJ, etc.), as well as how to use these personality types to create realistic, living, breathing characters that your readers will readily identify with.She also offers multiple free tools for writers, including downloadable PDFs for everything from character design to scene planning to writing critique templates and checklists. The site is full of so many valuable resources that writers are truly missing out if they dont add it to their bookmarked websites.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Pan African Consciousness - 904 Words

â€Å"I know no national boundary where the Negro is concerned. The whole world is my province until Africa is free† (Garvey). These words by Marcus Garvey perfectly illustrate the spirit of unification that characterized the attitude of many people of African Descent as a direct result of the callous treatment that Africa as a whole suffered at the hands of Europeans. Europe not only ravished Africa of a significant resource in the millions of lives that it stole and enslaved. Europe also pillaged the continent with the brutal institution of colonization. The manacles of colonization inspired great suffering in the lands and lives of Africans examples include Land exploitation, labor exploitation and most significantly exploiting the minds†¦show more content†¦It is at this point that Cesaire argues the permanent malnutrition is introduced. This production of cash crops led to famine in the lands of The Congo and thusly caused permanent damage in the lives of the colonized. This damage led to the aspect of the Pan African movement that celebrated Africa. One very important idea pushed by Marcus Garvey, who is known as the father of the Pan- African Movement, is that â€Å"Africa was the ancestral home and spiritual cradle of all African-descended peoples, the scene of past and future glory† ( Lynch 31). Garvey thought it was very important that the continent be freed from â€Å"tyrannous European imperialist grasp† (Lynch 31). The ideas that Garvey postulated about Africa were founded in the consequences of Europe’s misuse of the land. Another way that European colonization caused harm to Africans is through labor exploitation. Death, taxation, and torture were tools used to enforce labor policies. After Europeans confiscated African land, they proceeded to charge Africans taxes to inhabit the land. They charged the taxes in a manner that required Africans to work for Europeans in order to pay. The railway line in The Congo, Ivory recovery, cash crop cultivation and rubber extraction were all tasks performed by Africans. Africans most often worked without pay. Europeans however madeShow MoreRelatedThe s Theory Of Pan Africanism1347 Words   |  6 PagesThe oppression of Africans has been a prevalent source of pain and suffering since the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Political and economic systems have been designed to implement disenfranchisement for people of color on all societal platforms. Throughout the course of the black experience, many prominent individuals held arguments and intellectual conversations re garding the socioeconomic characteristics of African-Americans. The most controversial, prolific intellectual figure who harnessed aRead MoreSummary Of The African Experience Essay1455 Words   |  6 Pagesare several salient points that can be made about Symonà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s comments. Symonà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s concern with her inability to accurately trace her African roots is reminiscent of the Pan-Africanist point of view. In this interview, Raven is privileging the Pan- African point of view, deciding that her blackness cannot be validated unless she can show a clear connection to Africa. The Pan-Africanist point of view came about during the time of 18th century slave revolts and continued throughout the 19th century abolitionistRead MorePan Africanism : The Black Social, Intellectual, And Political Realities1514 Words   |  7 PagesPan-Africanism Pan-Africanism signifies the difficulties of black social, intellectual, and political notions over a two hundred year span. What establishes Pan-Africanism, on the basic level, is the unity of Africans worldwide. Pan-Africanists believe that the African people in its entirety, which includes the Diaspora and the African continent, does not just share common beginnings but also a common destiny. (Asante, 1976, p. 97) This ideology of an intertwined past and future of all the AfricanRead MoreThe Pan Africanism For Beginners1829 Words   |  8 PagesThe Pan-African movement as described in Lemelle’s Pan-Africanism for Beginners is a set of ideas and ideologies containing social and cultural, political and economic, material and spiritual aspects. Each aspect is accompanied by a plethora of historical figures and terms unique to the movement, well described throughout the text and in the presented glossary. This book makes it easy to understand all the information accompanying e ach topic. While it does have its strengths and weaknesses, thisRead MorePan Africanism1731 Words   |  7 PagesPan-Africanism and the Organization of African Unity      Pan Africanism Definition Pan-Africanism is a sociopolitical worldview, and philosophy, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify both native Africans and those of the African Diaspora, as part of a global African community.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Pan Africanism represents the aggregation of the historical, cultural, spiritual, artistic, scientific and philosophical legacies of Africans from past times to the present. Pan AfricanismRead MoreThe Pan Africanism For Beginners1823 Words   |  8 Pages The Pan-African movement as described in Lemelle’s Pan-Africanism for Beginners is a set of ideas and ideologies containing social and cultural, political and economic, material and spiritual aspects. Each aspect is accompanied by a plethora of historical figures and terms unique to the movement described thoroughly in the text and the presented glossary. The piece makes it easy to understand all the information accompanying each topic. While it does have its strengths and weaknesses, the bookRead MoreThe Slavery Of African Americans860 Words   |  4 Pagesand the neighborhoods are infested with drugs and weaponry; then you’re at war. African people have been at war with society, and in spite of the fact that their weapons has slightly been adjusted over the years, it still remains the same endless war we’ve been facing since the settling of African people in the Americas. African people could never fully integrate with the shared heritage and experience within the African identity. Wars have been going on for times on end, from Emmitt Till to the RosewoodRead MoreAnalysis Of Alain Lockes The New Negro1646 Words   |  7 Pagesblack people worked to find a historicized identity. To do so, Locke appealed to two major constructs: internationalist movements like pan-Africanism, and the potential power of artistic expression and cultural recognition. It is the juxtaposition of these purported channels for change that make The New Negro such a powerful artifact of its moment. On the one hand, pan-Africanism as an ideology and as an interpretative framework held and produced many different meanings to its constituents. And althoughRead MoreThe Conflict Of African Diaspora1616 Words   |  7 Pagesmines the complicated archives of both black and white histories of slavery, exposing their endlessly interrelated natures† (112). Caryl Phillips as a black Briton traces many complex meanings of the terms Diaspora. The term African Diaspora is applied to dislocation of African people to other parts of the world. It is also applied for the descendants of enslaved people during Atlantic slave trade, as Erica Still describes: A Diaspora is formed through the movement of bodies, and in both the transatlanticRead MoreW. E. B. DuBois988 Words   |  4 Pageshis life he believed in integration, but towards the end of his life he began to focus on Black Nationalism after he became discouraged with the lack of progress in race relations (Allan, 2013). Du Bois was an author, a poet, civil-rights activist, Pan-Africanist, a sociologist, and he was known for many other trades that he spent his time doing throughout his life. He graduated valedictorian from high school then earned his bachelor’s degree of arts from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Then

Saturday, May 9, 2020

A Major Goal Of Public Safety - 1432 Words

A major goal in Canada is to maintain the safety of the society. Therefore, in order to control this goal of public safety penitentiaries are used for confide individuals who commit serious crimes. Prison tours was organized to provide the understanding into the attributes of imprisonment. In the article â€Å"Problematizing Carceral Tours† , Justin Pichà © and Kevin Walby claim carceral tours display minimal understanding of prisons. They support their argument by pointing out the infractions of the carceral tours. In opposition, in the article â€Å"In Praise of the Carceral Tour: Learning from the Grendon Experience†, David Wilson, Roy Spina, and Joyce Canaan argue the benefits of the carceral tours. In the article â€Å"Problematizing Carceral†¦show more content†¦This method of carceral tours is used to maintain the vision that the prison is kept well maintained and ethical to there prisoners. The justification behind the vision is to sustain the CSC (The Correctional Service of Canada) mission statement. The mission statement is to demonstrate general understanding of the objectives and operations of the prison. The authors stated that penitentiaries rarely provide their â€Å"rehabilitative and correctional ideals†. The complexity of prison life is often disregarded, this is an issue seeing as it is the leading attraction for tourists. The final argument that is made is the effect is has on the prisoners. The carceral tours portray prisoners to be dangerous. The staff often dehumanize prisoners, using regulations that tourists are ordered to follow regarding their interactions with the prisoners. This often impacts the tourist judgement of the prisoners. M ost importantly, the dignity for the prisoners are not being respected. In conclusion, the research founded, pedagogical value was not worth the intrusion of privacy upon prisoners. The article â€Å"In Praise of the Carceral Tour: Learning from the Grendon Experience† , Wilson, Spina, and Canaan response to the arguments brought up by Pichà © and Walby. Firstly, Wilson, Spina, and Canaan address the argument made by Pichà © and Walby regarding the scripted and controlled tours and how it eliminates the key aspects of incarceration. Their rebuttal against the issue is; despite the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing in a New Venture Free Essays

Today is a very different day as far as communication goes. We live in the age of NOW! Over are the days when one has to wait for a letter from a friend, go to the grocery store before it closes or run to the bank before it closes to pay a bill.   These advances come with set backs, such as scams. We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing in a New Venture or any similar topic only for you Order Now I have had some emails sent to me about winning a lottery that I have never played.   Such people pray on the destitute and ignorant.   They lurk anywhere from emails to job postings.   I must say, I respect Craigslist for having warnings and allowing a posting to be flagged if it seems at all suspicious.   The craigslist team has put forth much effort to minimize such attempts. I have not seen this on many other sites. Craigslist has a reputation of being the ‘go to’ spot for employment, gigs and events.   If they were not careful about such things, they would probably lose a lot of business. This forces businesses to work hard to at least appear legitimate.   It also puts a new twist on ‘let the buyer beware.’   With so many scams on the internet, it is quite difficult to call a spade a spade.   The warnings from Craigslist enable the consumer to   make an informed decision and probably be less likely to deal with companies unheard of by most. It also empowers the average joe by perhaps prompting him to take that extra step to contact   the   Better Business Bureau or consumer affairs to verify the legitimacy of these companies.   As an avid user of craigslist, I am leary of ambiguous terms used in ads.   Such ads I shy away from.   I have come across ads that have been flagged and it helps me to feel that other users are looking out for each other.   Craigslist creates a sense of comraderie and the safety in the big brother is watching theory. It has a commune feel and if that is not what they were going for, it is definitely not a bad side effect. I had never heard of craigslist until a friend of mine mentioned it to me. Once I went on it, I was hooked. I wasted less time on spam in disguise because the community was looking out for me.   I learned of it by word of mouth, which is perhaps the way some other services would benefit.   For example, a service for home replenishment would benefit from word of mouth.   It is purely the nature of the medium that suggests this.   Let us say that we know of a birth.   The new mom may not be able to get around and may want her groceries delivered. I may tell her about it. Perhaps a friend broke his leg on a ski trip and cannot get around so well, I may speak of it then.   Maybe many students are studying for a final and are so enthralled in the studies that we cannot take a break. I may suggest it at that point.   It is the type of entity that requires a situation to entertain the thought of utilizing the service.   Another situation, such as a graduation (event) lends itself easily to viral marketing.   Requiring those that I have emailed to respond RSVP will give the hosting site information a marketing list and some of them will partake in such an event.   A service to allow incoming college students to create personal pages, organized by their institutions, may benefit from word of mouth marketing with limited viral marketing. Since it is organized by the institution, it limits access to those that are not privy to the institutional privileges. A service using a device to look up barcodes can definitely benefit from bootstrapping.   The items that are being looked up will probably link to the company or manufacturer of such products.   They in turn will send similar product emails to the person looking up the products.   This may result in traditional marketing, such as coupons and mailings with an instant direct marketing list. How to cite Marketing in a New Venture, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

W.E.B. Du Bois and Mary Wollstonecraft free essay sample

An examination of the different styles and techniques of writing. An examination of the different writing styles and techniques of writers: W.E.B. Du Bois and Mary Wollstonecraft. The author examines their presentations and techniques in gaining audience attention and portraying a convincing argument, and the way these differed according to the time these authors wrote. The author makes reference to various novels such as: Wollstonecraft?s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and Du Bois?s The Souls of Black Folk. When addressing an audience, the writers choice of words, style and the manner in which his or her presentation is executed are critical. They are the key elements to gaining the audiences attention and not only maintaining it, but also convincing them that the argument, which you are making, is worthy. Both Wollstonecraft and Du Bois had brilliant strategies geared toward gaining the attention and approval of their audiences. We will write a custom essay sample on W.E.B. Du Bois and Mary Wollstonecraft or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although Wollstonecraft wrote for an audience of British men in 1792 and Du Bois for white American men in 1903, they shared a common use of literary wording and usage of speech. Aside from sharing similar writing characteristics they also shared other attributes as well. In Wollstonecrafts A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and Du Boiss The Souls of Black Folk they both have a particular goal in mind, which they hope to achieve by their writings; a goal that if successful, would create a revelation in the way of living for both women and black folk. Wollstonecraft and Du Bois are both fighting, one for the rights of women and the other for the rights of Blacks, but in actuality they are fighting for the same goal. They want equality among all, not just women or Blacks, but for society as a whole.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Gender Equality Essays - Gender, Social Constructionism, Free Essays

Gender Equality Essays - Gender, Social Constructionism, Free Essays Gender Equality Tyrone Cloyd Baltimore, MD Gender equality has been a social concern since man step foot on earth. When we think of gender equality discrimination against women is what comes to mind, but in recent years psychologist and sociologist have began to study how men are discriminated against. It is considered general knowledge that men still make more money a year then women, and it is true that men hold most of the position of power in society. Recent studies have concluded that there is an aspect of society that discriminates against men. This aspect of society is deeply rooted in the American culture, and it is hard to name, to discuses, and to study. Gender roles for men, then are viewed not as biological givens, but as social constructions created from the expectations of social forces such as parents, teachers, peers, and the media about what constitute masculinity (Pleck, 1995) Mahalik 1998}. Men are socialized to believe in the importance of success, power, and competitiveness. Because the male socialization experience is theorized to create negative feelings such as anxiety and shame related to all things feminine, the development of rigid traditional male roles, or male gender role conflict (ONeil, Helms, Gable, David, & Wrightsman, 1986) Mahalik 1998}. Looking at male emotional socialization from the framework of the gender role strain paradigm, many boys are required to block their feelings and restrict the expression of their vulnerable and caring emotions (Levant) Mahalik 1998}. Because of this, a man experiences any particular facet of self that he considers feminine with great conflict and anxiety, because he believes it threatens his manhood (Mahalik, Cournoyer, Defranc, Cherry, and Napolitano 1998). As a result of this fear of femininity, men are believed to over conform to traditional male roles as a coping strategy to avoid femininity (Pleck, 1995) Mahalik 1998}. Men are taught to use their roles prescribed by society as a psychological defense. When a man is confronted with an situation instead of dealing with the problem, men tend to fall back on the stereotypical masculine gender roles. Men hold their emotions inside and although they may not be immediately affected our health and well - being suffers in the long run. The improper socialization of males in American society affects all demographics of society. It affects men across socio - economic classes, and races and cultures. Improper socialization of males is an interesting topic to research and study because it affects the entire male population and it is going to take society as a whole working together to correct the problem. One way to began changing how males are socialized is to make the population aware of the psychological effects gender role conflicts. In mental health institutions, at hospitals, and colleges and universities there is an array of journals, pathlets, and articles written about how women are discriminated and socialized. With the new millennium approaching the effects of male socialization needs to be an equally important issue on the public policy agenda. More research needs to be done and published so that the message can spread throughout the country and the scholarly community. For background information two articles from the Journal of Counseling Psychology will be discus. The first, Mens Gender Role Conflict and Use of Psychological Defenses by James R. Mahilik, Robert J. Cournoyer, William DeFranc, Marcus Cherry, and Jeffrey M. Napolitano examines the way males are socialized and the way that their socialization affects how they respond in anxious situations. Specifically, the researchers are trying to determine if there is a relationship between stereotypical macho male roles and psychological defense mechanisms. There were one hundred and fifteen participants in this study. All participants in this study were males. Some of the participants were college students, others were from various clubs and organizations, and others were from church groups. The average age of the participants was 26.45 years. The participants were from a variety of cultural backgrounds, but the vast majority were white. The participants were first asked to complete the Gender Role Conflict Scale. This scale measures success, power, and competition; restrictive emotionality; restrictive affectionate behavior between men; and conflicts between work and family relations. The Defense Mechanism Inventory was used to measure the use of

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Dance Your Work What Would That Look Like

Dance Your Work What Would That Look Like This week I got inspired again by a dance camp moment. A friend of mine, a photographer, approached me to say goodbye as he was leaving camp today. Before he left, he was compelled to tell me about a class where he was given the opportunity to â€Å"dance† his work. He began showing me his dance. I have done a lot of dancing in my time, but I have never danced my work. I’m willing to bet you haven’t either. Can you imagine what it would look like? I watched my friend dance. He takes photos of many women for their on line dating profiles, and he discovered through his dance that clicking the shutter is just a small part of what he does; the main dance is his connection with the person being photographed- the way he draws them out from being somewhat nervous at the beginning to shining out with their most attractive selves. I could see as he danced the joy that this process of discovery and opening gave him. He finished his dance, and it was my turn. What is the dance I do with my clients? Surprising to me, the first place I went was toward my ears. Hands cycling up toward my ears and back out, listening, taking in information, listening, always listening. Then the fingers start typing out what I’ve heard. There are pauses†¦ long periods of sitting with information, tossing it around in my mind, exploring, then a flurry of typing activity and the words flowing out into meaning and expression. I was pleased to discover that the essence of my work is listening; the dance brought me to that essence in seconds. I realize this might be a stretch, but what would happen if you danced your work? Where would the essence lie? What is at the heart of what you do each day? Perhaps it would be worth a try to discover something new through your own work/dance. So I invite you†¦ stand up†¦ close your eyes†¦ and begin.